Biodetection Technologies for First Responders


Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2015 edition. PCR-based Detection Systems: GeneReach USA:  POCKIT. p 5.11-12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.(PNNL)


Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 edition. PCR-based Detection Systems: GeneReach USA: POCKIT. p 5.10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.(PNNL)

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Dong HT, Chaijarasphong T, Barnes AC, Delamare-Deboutteville J, Lee PA, Senapin S, Mohan CV, Tang KFJ, McGladdery SE, Bondad-Reantaso MG (2022). From the basics to emerging diagnostic technologies: What is on the horizon for tilapia disease diagnostics? Review In Aquaculture.

Janapatla, R., Lee, C., Dudek, A., Chuang, C., Chen, S., & Lai, C. et al. (2022). Validation of a point-of-need diagnostic tool for rapid diagnosis of norovirus gastroenteritis. Pediatrics &Amp; Neonatology.

Chiu, S., Hu, S., Liao, L., Chen, Y., Liao, H., Cheng, J., & Lin, J. (2022). Evaluation of a New Norovirus Genogroups GI and GII In Vitro Molecular Diagnostic Assay Using Clinical Specimens Collected from Acute Diarrheal Outbreaks. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. DOI:10.1089/fpd.2021.0097


Lee, J., Cho, A., Ko, H., Ping, J., Ma, L., Chai, C., Noh, J., Jeong, J., Jeong, S., Kim, Y., Kim, J., Kim, K., Lee, S., Lee, J., Park, S., Choi, I., Lee, S. and Song, C., 2021. Evaluation of insulated isothermal PCR devices for the detection of avian influenza virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 292, p.114126. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2021.114126

NGA, T., NHI-CONG, L., PHUONG, P., QUYNH, L. and Nguyen, V., 2021. Evaluation of an Automatic Insulated Isothermal PCR System for Rapid and Reliable Field-Deployable Detection of African Swine Fever Virus. DOI:10.21203/

Tran, H., Le, N., Pham, B., Luu, V. and Nguyen, V., 2021. Evaluation of an automated insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction system for rapid and reliable, on-site detection of African swine fever virus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 259(6), pp.662-668. DOI: 10.2460/javma.259.6.662

Mahmoud, S., Ganesan, S., Ibrahim, E., Thakre, B., Teddy, J., Raheja, P. and Zaher, W. Evaluation of six different rapid methods for nucleic acid detection of SARS‐COV‐2 virus. Journal of Medical Virology (2021);1–6. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.27090

Micocci, M., Gordon, A., Seo, M., Allen, A., Davies, K., Lasserson, D., Thompson, C., Spilsbury, K., Akrill, C., Heath, R., Astle, A., Sharpe, C., Perera, R., Hayward, G. and Buckle, P. Is point-of-care testing feasible and safe in care homes in England? An exploratory usability and accuracy evaluation of a point-of-care polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. Age and Ageing (2021); 1–9 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afab072

Chang, P., Lin, C., Chen, C., Lin, Y., Hu, H., Cheng, S. and Cheng, C. Clinical validation of an automated reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR assay for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2021);54(3), pp.522-526. Doi: 0.1016/j.jmii.2021.01.005


Du, T., Lin, J., Zhao, J., Wang, H. and Mo, Q., 2020. Development and Evaluation of an iiPCR Assay for Salmonella and Shigella Detection on a Field-Deployable PCR System. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, 2020, pp.1-5. DOI:10.1155/2020/9373984

Kek Heng Chua , E. Wei Tan , Hwa Chia Chai , SD Puthucheary , Ping Chin Lee and Suat Moi Puah (2020). Rapid identification of melioidosis agent by an insulated isothermal PCR on a field–deployable device. PeerJ. DOI 10.7717/peerj.9238. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9238.


Dian Perwitasari, Roy Nusa RES, Jusniar Ariati, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Simon Chung and Pei-Yu Alison Lee. Detection of dengue virus using a field deployable PCR system: Evaluation on human serum samples in Indonesia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, (2019) 50(6): 1016-1028

Inui, K., Nguyen, T., Tseng, H., Tsai, C., Tsai, Y., & Chung, S. et al. (2019). A field‐deployable insulated isothermal RT‐PCR assay for identification of influenza A (H7N9) shows good performance in the laboratory. Influenza And Other Respiratory Viruses, 13(6), 610-617.

Schar, D., Padungtod, P., Tung, N., O’Leary, M., Kalpravidh, W. and Claes, F. (2019). New frontiers in applied veterinary point‐of‐capture diagnostics: Toward early detection and control of zoonotic influenza. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 2019;00:1–4. DOI:10.1111/irv.12648

Tsai, J., Liu, W., Lin, P., Huang, B., Tsai, C., Lee, P., Tsai, Y., Chou, P., Chung, S., Liu, L. and Chen, C. (2019). A fully automated sample-to-answer PCR system for easy and sensitive detection of dengue virus in human serum and mosquitos. PLOS ONE, 14(7), p.e0218139. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0218139

Jianqiang Zhang, Charles Nfon, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Chien-Hsien Lee, Lindsay Fredericks, Qi Chen, Avanti Sinha, Sarah Bade, Karen Harmon, Pablo Piñeyro, Phillip Gauger, Yun-Long Tsai, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, (2019). Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR and a field-deployable RT-insulated isothermal PCR for the detection of Seneca Valley virus. BMC Veterinary Research, 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1927-4

Tsai J-J, Liu W-L, Lin P-C, Huang B-Y, Tsai C-Y, Chou P-H, et al. (2019) An RT-PCR panel for rapid serotyping of dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4 in human serum and mosquito on a field-deployable PCR system. PLoS ONE 14(3): e0214328. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0218139


Ruggiero, V., Benitez, O., Tsai, Y., Lee, P., Tsai, C., Lin, Y., Chang, H., Wang, H. and Bartlett, P., 2018. On-site detection of bovine leukemia virus by a field-deployable automatic nucleic extraction plus insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction system. Journal of Virological Methods, 259, pp.116-121. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.06.008

H.-F.G. CHANG, P.-Y.A. LEE and C. SU. 2018. Transforming the Farm Managers into the Family Doctors of Their Own Ponds. Asian Fisheries Science 31S (2018): 137-154. DOI: 10.33997/j.afs.2018.31.S1.010

Vissani M.A., Tordoya M.S., Tsai Y.-L., Lee P.-Y.A., Shen Y.-H., Lee F.-C., Wang H.-T.T., Parreño V., Barrandeguy M. 2018. On-site detection of equid alphaherpesvirus 3 in perineal and genital swabs of mares and stallions. Journal of Virological Methods 257 (2018) 29–32.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.04.002 

Jih-Jin Tsai, Li-Teh Liu, Ping-Chang Lin, Ching-Yi Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Yun-Long Tsai, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Pei-Yu Alison Lee. 2018. Validation of the Pockit Dengue Virus Reagent Set for Rapid Detection of Dengue Virus in Human Serum on a Field-deployable PCR System. J Clin Microbiol 56:e01865-17. DOI:10.1128/JCM.01865-17

Wei-Kung Wang, Duane J. Gubler. 2018. Potential Point-of-Care Testing for Dengue Virus in the Field. J Clin Microbiol 56:e00203-18. DOI:10.1128/JCM.00203-18

K.L. Cooke, P. Frenzer, S.J. Tucker, P.C. Crawford, S.K. Kirk, and J.K. Levy. Rapid Diagnosis of Babesia gibsoni by Point-of-Need Testing by Insulated Isothermal PCR in Dogs at High Risk of Infection. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2018) 32:232-235. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.15033


Mariano Carossino, Yanqiu Li, Pei-Yu A. Lee, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Dennis Williams, Ashley Skillman, R. Frank Cook, Grayson Brown, Hsiao-Fen G. Chang, Hwa-Tang T. Wang and Udeni B. R. Balasuriya. Evaluation of a field-deployable reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR for rapid and sensitive on-site detection of Zika virus. BMC Infectious Diseases (2017) 17:778. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2852-4

Yun Young Go, Yeon-Sook Kim, Shinhye Cheon, Sangwoo Nam, Keun Bon Ku, Meehyein Kim, Nam Hyuk Cho, Hyun Park, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Yu-Chun Lin, Yun-Long Tsai, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, and Udeni B.R. Balasuriya. Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Two Field-deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal PCR Assays for the Detection of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics (2017) 19:817-827. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2017.06.007 

Rebecca P Wilkes, Eman Anis, Dawn Dunbar, Pei-Yu A Lee, Yun-Long Tsai, Fu-Chun Lee, Hsiao-Fen G Chang, Hwa-Tang T Wang and Elizabeth M Graham. Rapid and sensitive insulated isothermal PCR for point-of-need feline leukaemia virus detection. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 1-8 2017. DOI:10.1177/1098612X17712847

Udeni B.R. Balasuriya, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Yun-Long Tsai, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Yu-Han Shen, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Ashley Skillman, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Stéphane Pronost, Yan Zhang. 2017. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT nucleic acid analyzer. J Virol Methods. 241:58-63.

Hung-Chih Kuo , Dan-Yuan Lo , Chiu-Lin Chen , Chien-Hsien Lee , Yu-Han Shen, Yung-Long Tsai , Pei-Yu Alison Lee * and Hsiao-Feng Grace Chang. Rapid Detection of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by a Duplex Reverse Transcription Insulated Isothermal PCR on a Field-Deployable System. Jounal of Veterinary Science & Technology 2017, 8:1. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7579.1000415


Kek Heng Chua, Ping Chin Lee and Hwa Chia Chai. Development of insulated isothermal PCR for rapid on‑site malaria detection. Malar J. 2016 Mar 1; 15:134. DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1183-z

Balasuriya B.R. , Carossino M., Lee P.Y., Nam B., Skillman A., Shuck K., Timoney P., Tsai Y.L., Ma L.J., Chang H.F., and Wang H.T. Development and Evaluation of a Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Equine Arteritis Virus in Equine Semen and Tissue Samples using the POCKIT System. J Virol Methods. 2016 Aug;234:7-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.02.015

Go YY, Rajapakse J, Kularatne S, Lee PY, Ku KB, Nam S, Chou PH, Tsai YL, Liu YL, Chang HF, Wang HT and Balasuriya BR. A pan-dengue virus reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay intended for point-of-need diagnosis of dengue infection using POCKIT Nucleic Acid Analyzer. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Jun;54(6):1528-35. DOI:10.1128/JCM.00225-16

Zhang JQ, Tsai YL, Lee PY, Chen Q, Zhang Y, Chiang CJ, Shen YH, Li FC, Chang HF, Gauger PC, Harmon KM, Wang HT. Evaluation of Two Singleplex Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal PCR Tests and a Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR Test for the Detection of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Porcine Deltacoronavirus. Jounal of Virological Methods, 2016, 234, 34-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.03.016

Kuo HC, Lo DY, Chen CL, Tsai YL, Ping JF, Lee CH, Lee PY, Chang HFC. Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycoplasma synoviae by an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction-based assay on a field-deployable device. Poultry Science, 2016,  0:1–7. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew228

Tung HY, Wang SH, Chiang YC, Tsai MS. Rapid Screening of Roundup Ready Soybean in Food Samples by a Hand-held PCR Device. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 25(4): 1-7 (2016) DOI: 10.1007/s10068-016-0177-5 

Ying-Hong Lin, Yi-Jia Lin, Li-Ling Hong, Tzu-Yu Chen, Pi-Fang Linda Chang, Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4., PLoS One.,DOI:10.1371/jounal.pone.0159681 

A. Ambagala, M. Fisher1, M. Goolia, C. Nfon, T. Furukawa-Stoffer, R. Ortega Polo, O. Lung. Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. DOI:10.1111/tbed.12554.


O. Lung, J. Pasick, M. Fisher, C. Buchanan, A. Erickson and A. Ambagala. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Jan 27.  DOI:10.1111/tbed.12318

Rebecca P. Wilkes, Pei-Yu A. Lee, Yun-Long Tsai, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Hsiu-Hui Chang, Hsiao-Fen G. Chang, Hwa-Tang T. Wang. An insulated isothermal PCR method on a field-deployable device for rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 at points of need. J Virol Methods. 2015 Aug;220: 35-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.04.007.

Rebecca Penrose Wilkes, Stephen A. Kania, Yun-Long Tsai, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Hsiu-Hui Chang, Li-Juan Ma, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang. Rapid and sensitive detection of Feline immunodeficiency virus using an insulated isothermal PCR-based assay with a point-of-need PCR detection platform. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jul;27(4):510-5.  DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593597

A. Ambagala, S. Pahari, M. Fisher, P-Y. A. Lee, J. Pasick, E. N. Ostlund, D. J. Johnson and O. Lung. A Rapid Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Sensitive and Specific Detection of Bluetongue Virus. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Jul 19. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12388.


Udeni B.R. Balasuriya, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Ashish Tiwari, Ashley Skillman, Bora Nam, Thomas M. Chambers, Yun-Long Tsai, Li-Juan Ma, Pai-Chun Yang, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang. Rapid detection of equine influenza virus H3N8 subtype by insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay using the POCKIT Nucleic Acid Analyzer. J Virol Methods. 2014 Oct; 207:66-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.06.016 

Yun-Long Tsai, Han-Ching Wang, Chu-Fang Lo, Kathy Tang-Nelson, Donald Lightner, Bor-Rung Ou, Ai-Ling Hour, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Cheng-Chi Yen, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Ping-Hua Teng, Pei-Yu Lee. Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 13; 9(3):e90545. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090545

Rebecca P Wilkes, Yun-Long Tsai, Pei-Yu Lee, Fu-Chun Lee, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang and Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by one-tube reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction. BMC Vet Res. 2014 Sep 9;10:213. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-014-0213-8

Udeni B. R. Balasuriya. Type A influenza virus detection from horsed by real-time RT-PCR and insulated RT-iiPCR. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1161:393-402. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0758-8_34.


Hau-Yang Tsen, Chia-Ming Shih, Ping-Hua Teng, Hsin-Yen Chen, Chia-Wei Lin, Chien-Shun Chiou, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Te-Yu Chung, Pei-Yu Lee, and Yu-Cheng Chiang. Detection of Salmonella in Chicken Meat by Insulated Isothermal PCR. J Food Prot. 2013 Aug;76(8):1322-9. DOI: /10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-553


Yun-Long Tsai, Yu-Chan Lin, Pin-Hsing Chou, Ping-Hua Teng, Pei-Yu Lee. Detection of white spot syndrome virus by polymerase chain reaction performed under insulated isothermal conditions. J Virol Methods 2012 Apr 4; 181(1):134-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.01.017

Yun-Long Tsai, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Ching-Ko Lin, Ping-Hua Teng, Chen Su, Chien-Chung Jeng, Pei-Yu Lee. Development of TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal PCR (iiPCR) for Sensitive and Specific On-Site Pathogen Detection. PLoS One 2012 25; 7(9):e45278. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045278 

Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Yun-Long Tsai, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Ching-Ko Lin, Pei-Yu Lee, Ping-Hua Teng, Chen Su and Chien-Chung Jeng. A thermally baffled device for highly stabilized convective PCR. Biotechnol J. 2012 May;7(5):662-6. DOI:10.1002/biot.201100453